Implications of exotic Pinus radiata plantations for macrofungal diversity in the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (northern Spain)
Sarrionandia, I. Olariaga, R. Picón, M. Duñabeitia, A. Robredo, N. Rodríguez, I. Salcedo Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2015, 45(6): 667-675
To analyze the implications of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations for macrofungal diversity, a comparative mycocoenological survey was conducted over three consecutive years in pine plantations and native oak forests (Quercus robur L.) in the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve. Macrofungal diversity was analyzed at species and community levels, and multivariate techniques were used to obtain insight into the fungal community in all functional groups. A total of 513 species was recorded, with ectomycorrhizal fungi being the most abundant, followed by the lignicolous saprotrophs. Measurements at both the overall level and the plot level showed that oak forests were richer in macrofungal species than pine plantations. The two ecosystems shared 107 species, but they possessed distinct species assemblages in all functional groups, as confirmed by PERMANOVA analysis. Although more abundant in oak stands, host-specific fungi were recorded in both ecosystems, revealing that exotic pine plantations can easily access fungal inocula from natural pine forests in the vicinity. However, even though the macrofungal richness in plantations is comparable with that in other native conifer forests in Europe, the community was made up of generalists, i.e., species that were not habitat specialists. In contrast, rarely reported, uncommon fungi were recorded in oak plots, revealing the importance of residual, native forest patches for fungal conservation.
Keywords: macrofungi, richness, assemblage, functional groups, radiata pine